BROOKLYN PITBULLS: Black History Month

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February is Black History Month, a chance to honor the lives and achievements of African Americans. Join MSN Encarta in celebrating Black History Month, and explore our special coverage of the African American experience. Click on the Black History Month headline above the picture to learn more....

How Much Do You Know About The American Civil Rights Movement?
People and Events in the American Civil Rights Movement
Major events and names of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States are familiar to most of us. But nearly every event has a fascinating and often inspiring story behind it. Do you know the answers to the who, what, where, and why behind the headlines of American civil rights history? Take the Microsoft Encarta quiz and find out.

Jim Crow laws and customs enforced racial segregation and discrimination in the United States, especially in the South. Who was Jim Crow?
a) A character in a minstrel show
b) A segregationist minister from Alabama
c) A character in Uncle Tom's Cabin

In 1961 Freedom Riders (black and white) traveled around the South in buses, riding from Washington, D.C., to Jackson, Mississippi, where they were arrested and imprisoned. What was the purpose of the Freedom Rides?
a) To support Rosa Parks, who was jailed for refusing to give up her bus seat to a white passenger
b) To transport protesters to and from the March on Washington
c) To test a court decision that declared segregation illegal in bus stations that were open to interstate travel

Whites in Little Rock, Arkansas, rioted to protest the integration of Central High School. Federal troops were sent in to maintain order. Who sent the troops to Little Rock?
a) John F. Kennedy
b) Dwight D. Eisenhower
c) Lyndon B. Johnson

In 1962 a black man applied for admission to the all-white University of Mississippi. A federal court ordered the university to desegregate, but the governor of Mississippi defied the order and tried to prevent the man from enrolling. The Kennedy administration sent federal marshals with the student when he enrolled. What was the student's name?
a) James Meredith
b) Medgar Evers
c) Jesse Jackson

Martin Luther King, Jr., was shot and killed in Memphis, Tennessee, on April 4, 1968. Why was King in Memphis?
a) To give his "I Have a Dream" speech
b) To support striking workers
c) To take part in the NAACP's "Jobs and Freedom" march

It is widely known that Jackie Robinson was the player who broke the color barrier in major league baseball. Who was the baseball executive who hired Robinson?
a) Abner Doubleday
b) Branch Rickey
c) Kenesaw Mountain Landis

Many events during the Civil Rights Movement in the United States turned violent. What event is known as Bloody Sunday?
a) A church bombing in which four children were killed
b) A police attack on voting-rights marchers
c) The murder of three young civil rights workers (a black volunteer and his white coworkers)

One of the best-known proponents of civil disobedience (refusal to obey civil laws or decrees), Martin Luther King, Jr., advocated nonviolent protest in the fight for civil rights. He was not, however, the first person to set forth the basic tenets of civil disobedience. Who was?
a) Henry David Thoreau
b) Ralph Waldo Emerson
c) Mohandas Gandhi

A constitutional amendment guaranteed African American men the right to vote: ''The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.'' Which amendment is this?
a) 13th Amendment
b) 15th Amendment
c) 19th Amendment

School desegregation was a major part of the Civil Rights Movement of the mid-20th century. But challenges to segregation arose around the country even earlier in states such as Arkansas, Massachusetts, and Mississippi. What was the first legal challenge to segregated schools?
a) Brown v. Board of Education
b) Sweatt v. Painter
c) Roberts v. City of Boston

In 1967 President Lyndon Johnson appointed the National Commission on Civil Disorders and charged the commission with investigating urban riots in the United States. In 1968 the commission released its report, which warned, ''Our nation is moving toward two societies, one black, one white--separate and unequal.'' What was the name of the report?
a) Kerner Report
b) Warren Report
c) A Nation at Risk

The Civil Rights Memorial, which honors 40 people who gave their lives between 1954 and 1968 in the fight for racial equality, was dedicated in 1989. Where is this memorial located?
a) Washington, D.C.
b) Montgomery, Alabama
c) Memphis, Tennessee

Answers 1.A) A character in a minstrel show 2. C) To test a court decision that declared segregation illegal in bus stations that were open to interstate travel 3. B) Dwight D. Eisenhower 4. A) James Meredith 5. B) To support striking workers 6. B) Branch Rickey 7. B) A police attack on voting-rights marchers 8. A) Henry David Thoreau 9. B) 15th Amendment 10. C) Roberts v. City of Boston 11. A) Kerner Report 12. B) Montgomery, Alabama


James Brown Black & Brown

James Joseph Brown (May 3, 1933 – December 25, 2006), commonly referred to as "The Godfather of Soul" and "The Hardest Working Man in Show Business," was an American entertainer recognized as one of the most influential figures in 20th-century popular music. He was renowned for his shouting vocals, feverish dancing and unique rhythmic style.

As a prolific singer, songwriter, bandleader and record producer, Brown was a seminal force in the evolution of gospel and rhythm and blues into soul and funk. He left his mark on numerous other musical genres, including rock, jazz, reggae, disco, dance and electronic music, afrobeat and hip hop music.[2]

Brown began his professional music career in 1953 and skyrocketed to fame during the late 1950s and early 1960s on the strength of his thrilling live performances and string of smash hits. In spite of various personal problems and setbacks, he continued to score hits in every decade through the 1980s. In the 1960s and 1970s, Brown was a presence in American political affairs, noted especially for his activism on behalf of African Americans and the poor.

Brown was recognized by a plethora of (mostly self-bestowed) titles, including Soul Brother Number One, Mr. Dynamite, the Hardest-Working Man in Show Business, Minister of The New New Super Heavy Funk, Mr. Please Please Please, The Boss, and the best-known, the Godfather of Soul.

Early life
Brown was born as the only child of James Joseph Sr. and the former Susie Behlings in the small town of Barnwell during Depression-era South Carolina as James Joseph Brown, Jr.[3][4][5] Brown's parents separated when he was 4 years old, and after the separation, Brown was sent to live with his great-aunt in Augusta, Georgia.[6][3] During his childhood, Brown earned money by picking cotton in the nearby fields, shining shoes, sweeping out stores and singing in talent contests. As a child, Brown also performed buck dances for change to entertain troops from Camp Gordon as their convoys traveled over a canal bridge near his aunt's house.[5]

As an adult, Brown legally changed his name to remove the "Jr." designation.[7] In his spare time, Brown variously spent time either practicing his skills in Augusta-area halls or committing petty crimes. At the age of sixteen, he was convicted of armed robbery and sent to a juvenile detention center upstate in Toccoa in 1948. While Brown was in prison, he became acquainted with Bobby Byrd. Byrd's family helped Brown secure an early release after serving only three years of his sentence, under the condition that he not return to Augusta or Richmond County and that he would try to get a job. After brief stints as a boxer and baseball pitcher (a career move ended by a leg injury), Brown turned his energy toward music.

Career in music over the years
The legendary music career of James Brown spanned over five decades, adding the tastes, flavors and influences to music throughout the ages. As a tower and icon in music world, Brown's beat shaped and influenced music over the years and genres ranging from gospel, rock and roll, rhythm and blues and soul, straight through to funk, disco, techno, rap and hip hop.[8]

Beginnings of the Famous Flames
In 1955, Brown and Bobby Byrd's sister Sarah performed in a group called "The Gospel Starlighters." Eventually, Brown joined Bobby Byrd's vocal group, the Avons, and Byrd turned the group's sound towards secular rhythm and blues. After the group's name was changed to The Flames, Brown and Byrd's group toured the Southern "chitlin' circuit," and the group eventually signed a deal with the Federal subsidiary of Syd Nathan's Cincinnati, Ohio-based King Records.

The group's first recording was the single "Please, Please, Please" (1956). The single was a #5 R&B hit, selling over a million copies. However, subsequent records released by The Flames failed to live up to the success of "Please, Please, Please". By 1958 and after nine failed singles, King was ready to drop Brown and the Flames when they bounced back with "Try Me," which became Brown's first No. 1 R&B hit.[9] By this time, the group's billing had changed to James Brown and The Famous Flames, and Brown had decisively taken over the leading role from Byrd. The group had several more chart hits over the next four years, including "I'll Go Crazy," "Bewildered," and the instrumental "Night Train," which reached the Pop Top 40. By the end of 1960, the group's recordings were released on the King label proper, rather than released on the label of its subsidiary. Brown also recorded songs on his own without vocal backup from the Famous Flames, such as the #2 R&B hit, "Baby, You're Right."

Cover of the landmark Live at the Apollo LP from 1962Brown's early recordings were fairly straightforward gospel-inspired R&B compositions, heavily inspired by the work of contemporary musicians such as Ray Charles. Yet, some of these recordings, such as his 1960 cover version of The "5" Royales' "Think," were already marked by a heavy rhythmic emphasis that would become even more pronounced in the coming years. Little Richard was a notable influence on Brown at this point. In fact, Brown once called Little Richard his idol, and credited his saxophone-studded mid-1950s road band The Upsetters with being the first to put the funk in the rock and roll beat.[10] When Little Richard bolted from pop music in 1957 to become a preacher, Brown honored Little Richard's remaining tour dates in his place; consequently, several former members of Little Richard's backup band joined Brown's revue.

Early and mid-1960s
While Brown's early singles were major hits across the southern United States and became regular R&B Top Ten hits, he and the Flames were not nationally successful until his self-financed live show was captured on the LP Live at the Apollo in 1962, which was released without the consent of his label, King Records.

Brown followed this success with a string of singles that, along with the work of Allen Toussaint in New Orleans, essentially defined funk music. The 1964 single "Out of Sight" was a harbinger of the new James Brown sound, even more than "Night Train" had been. The song's arrangement was raw and unornamented, the horns and the drums took center stage in the mix, and Brown's vocals took on an even more intense, rhythmic feel. However, Brown violated his contract with King Records again by recording "Out of Sight" for Smash Records; the ensuing legal battle resulted in a one year ban on the release of his vocal recordings.[11]

The mid-1960s was the period of Brown's greatest popular success. Two of his signature tunes, "Papa's Got a Brand New Bag" and "I Got You (I Feel Good)," both from 1965, were Brown's first Top 10 pop hits as well as major #1 R&B hits, with each remaining the top-selling singles in black venues for over a month. In 1966, Brown's "Papa's Got a Brand New Bag" won the Grammy for Best Rhythm & Blues Recording (an award last given in 1968). His national profile was boosted further that year by appearances in the films Ski Party and the concert film The T.A.M.I. Show in which he upstaged The Rolling Stones. In his concert repertoire and on record, Brown mingled his innovative rhythmic essays with ballads such as "It's a Man's Man's Man's World" (1965), and even interwined them with Broadway show tunes.

Brown continued to develop the new funk idiom. "Cold Sweat" (1967), a song with only one chord change, was considered a departure when compared even to Brown's other recent innovations. Critics have since come to see this shift as a high-water mark in the dance music of the 1960s; "Cold Sweat" was sometimes called the first "true" funk recording.

Brown often made creative adjustments to his songs for greater appeal. He sped up the released version of "Papa's Got a Brand New Bag" to make the song even more intense and commercial. He also spun off new compositions from the grooves of earlier ones by continual revision of their arrangements. For example, the hit "There Was a Time" emerged out of the chord progression and rhythm arrangements of the 1967 song "Let Yourself Go."[12]

The 1970 jazz-oriented LP Soul on Top
The late 1960s
Brown employed musicians and arrangers who had come up through the jazz tradition. He was noted for his ability as a bandleader and songwriter to blend the simplicity and drive of R&B with the rhythmic complexity and precision of jazz. Trumpeter Lewis Hamlin and saxophonist/keyboardist Alfred "Pee Wee" Ellis (the successor to previous bandleader Nat Jones) led the band. Guitarist Jimmy Nolen provided percussive, deceptively simple riffs for each song, and Maceo Parker's prominent saxophone solos provided a focal point for many performances. Other members of Brown's band included stalwart singer and sideman Bobby Byrd, drummers John "Jabo" Starks, Clyde Stubblefield and Melvin Parker (Maceo's brother), saxophonist St. Clair Pinckney, trombonist Fred Wesley, guitarist Alphonso "Country" Kellum and bassist Bernard Odum.

The cover to the 1970 live Sex Machine LPAs the 1960s came to a close, Brown refined his funk style even further with "I Got the Feelin'" and "Licking Stick-Licking Stick" (both recorded in 1968) and "Funky Drummer" (recorded in 1969). By this time, Brown's "singing" increasingly took the form of a kind of rhythmic declamation that only intermittently featured traces of pitch or melody. His vocals, not quite sung but not quite spoken, would be a major influence on the technique of rapping, which would come to maturity along with hip hop music in the coming decades. Supporting his vocals were instrumental arrangements that featured a more refined and developed version of Brown's mid-1960s style. The horn section, guitars, bass and drums all meshed together in strong rhythms based around various repeating riffs, usually with at least one musical "break".

Brown's recordings influenced musicians across the industry, most notably Sly and his Family Stone, Charles Wright & the Watts 103rd Street Rhythm Band, Booker T. & the M.G.'s and soul shouters like Edwin Starr, Temptations David Ruffin, Dennis Edwards and a then-prepubescent Michael Jackson, who took Brown's shouts and dancing into the pop mainstream as the lead singer of Motown's The Jackson 5. Those same tracks would later be resurrected by countless hip-hop musicians from the 1970s onward. In fact, James Brown remains the world's most sampled recording artist, and "Funky Drummer" has itself been counted as the most sampled individual piece of music.[13]

The content of Brown's songs developed along with their delivery. Socio-political commentary on the black person's position in society and lyrics praising motivation and ambition filled songs like "Say It Loud - I'm Black and I'm Proud" (1968) and "I Don't Want Nobody to Give Me Nothing (Open Up the Door I'll Get It Myself)" (1970). Although this change gained him an even greater position in the black community, the change in how Brown developed and delivered his songs caused him to lose much of his white audience, who could no longer relate to the songs' lyrics.

The 1970s: The JB's
By 1970, most of the members of James Brown's classic 1960s band had quit his act for other opportunities. He and Bobby Byrd employed a new band that included future funk greats such as bassist Bootsy Collins, Collins' guitarist brother Phelps "Catfish" Collins and trombonist/musical director Fred Wesley. This new backing band was dubbed "The JB's", and the band made its debut on Brown's 1970 single "Get Up (I Feel Like Being Like a) Sex Machine". Although the JB's went through several lineup changes (the first in 1971), the bank remained Brown's most familiar backing band.

As Brown's musical empire grew (he bought radio stations in the late 1960s, including Augusta's WRDW, where he had shined shoes as a boy), his desire for financial and artistic independence grew as well. In 1971, he began recording for Polydor Records. Among his first Polydor releases was the #1 R&B hit "Hot Pants (She Got To Use What She Got To Get What She Wants)." Many of his sidemen and supporting players, such as Fred Wesley & the JB's, Bobby Byrd, Lyn Collins, Myra Barnes and Hank Ballard, released records on the People label, an imprint Brown founded which was purchased by Polydor as part of his new contract. Most of these recordings (almost all of which were produced by Brown himself) exemplify what might be termed James Brown's "house style," and are as much a part of Brown's recorded legacy as those released under his own name. The early 1970s marked the first real awareness of Brown's achievements outside the African-American community.[citation needed] Miles Davis and other jazz musicians began to cite Brown as a major influence on their styles, and Brown provided the score for the 1973 blaxploitation film Black Caesar.

The 1974 LP The PaybackIn 1974, Brown performed in Zaire as part of the build up to the The Rumble in the Jungle fight between Muhammad Ali and George Foreman.

Brown's Polydor recordings during the 1970s were arguably a summation of all the innovation of the last twenty years. While some critics maintain that he declined artistically during this period, compositions such as "The Payback" (1973), "Papa Don't Take No Mess" and "Stoned to the Bone" (1974), "Funky President (People It's Bad)" (1975) and "Get Up Offa That Thing" (1976) are still considered among his best recordings.

The late 1970s and 1980s
By the mid-1970s, Brown's star-status was on the wane, and key musicians such as Bootsy Collins had begun to depart Brown's band form their own groups. The disco movement, which Brown anticipated, and some say originated, found relatively little room for Brown. His 1976 albums Get Up Offa That Thing and Bodyheat were his first flirtations with "disco-fied" rhythms incorporated into his funky repertoire. While the 1977 release Mutha's Nature and the 1978 release Jam 1980s did not generate charted hits, The Original Disco Man LP, released in 1979, was a notable late addition to his oeuvre. This album featured the song "It's Too Funky in Here," which was his last top R&B hit of the decade. Ironically, the song was not produced by Brown himself, but rather by producer Brad Shapiro.

Brown experienced somewhat of a resurgence during the 1980s, effectively crossing over to a broader, more mainstream audience. He made cameo appearances in the feature films The Blues Brothers, Doctor Detroit and Rocky IV, as well as guest starring in the Miami Vice episode "Missing Hours" in 1988. He also released Gravity, a modestly popular crossover album, and the hit 1985 single "Living in America," featured prominently in the Rocky IV film and soundtrack. In 1987, Brown won the Grammy for Best Male R&B Vocal Performance for the hit release for "Living in America." Acknowledging his influence on modern hip-hop and R&B music, Brown collaborated with hip-hop artist Afrika Bambaataa on the single "Unity", and worked with the group Full Force on a #5 R&B hit single, contributed to 1988 single "Static" from the hip-hop influenced album I'm Real. The drum break to his 1969 song "Give It Up Or Turnit A Loose" became so popular at hip hop dance parties (especially for breakdance) during the late 1970s and early 1980s that hip hop founding father Kurtis Blow calls the song "the national anthem of hip hop."[14]

Music during later years

Live at Chastain ParkBrown met with a series of legal and financial setbacks during later years. After a stint in prison, Brown released the album Love Overdue, with the new single "Move On." Brown also released the 1991 four-CD box set Star Time, which spanned his four-decade career. Nearly all of his earlier LPs were re-released on CD, often with additional tracks and commentary by experts on Brown's music. In 1993, James Brown released the album called Universal James, which spawned the singles "Can't Get Any Harder," "How Long" and "Georgia-Lina." In 1995, the live album Live At The Apollo 1995 was released, featuring a new track recorded in the studio called "Respect Me," which was released as a single that same year. A megamix called "Hooked on Brown" was released as a single in 1996. And in 1998, James Brown released the studio album, I'm Back, featuring the single "Funk On Ah Roll." In 2002, James Brown released the album The Next Step, which featured the single "Killing is Out, School is In." In 2003, he participated in the PBS American Masters television documentary James Brown: Soul Survivor, directed by Jeremy Marre.

Although Brown had various run-ins with the law, he continued to perform and record regularly, and even made appearances in television shows and films, such as Blues Brothers 2000. He appeared at Edinburgh 50,000 - The Final Push, the final Live 8 concert, on July 6, 2005, where he did a duet with British pop star Will Young on "Papa's Got A Brand New Bag." He also did a duet with another British pop star, Joss Stone, a week earlier on the United Kingdom chat show Friday Night with Jonathan Ross. Before his death, he was scheduled to perform a duet with singer Annie Lennox on the song "Vengeance" on her new album Venus, scheduled for release in early 2007. In 2006, Brown continued his "Seven Decades Of Funk World Tour", to be his last, performing all over the world. His latest shows were still greeted with positive reviews. One of his final concert performances was at the Irish Oxegen festival in Punchestown in 2006 to a record crowd of 80,000 people.

Brown played several instruments proficiently, including drums, guitar, Organ and piano. Despite his prowess as a performer, like many popular musicians Brown never learned to read music.[15] He developed his repertoire in close association with the members of his band, who were predominantly jazz-trained musicians with a working knowledge of music theory. As his former bandleader Fred Wesley recalled,

[I]t would have been impossible for James Brown to put his show together without the assistance of someone like Pee Wee [Ellis], who understood chord changes, time signatures, scales, notes, and basic music theory. Simple things like knowing the key would be a big problem for James ... The whole James Brown Show depended on having someone with musical knowledge remember the show, the individual parts, and the individual songs, then relay these verbally or in print to the other musicians. Brown could not do it himself. He spoke in grunts, groans, and la-di-das, and he needed musicians to translate that language into music and actual songs in order to create an actual show.[16]

Despite these technical limitations, Brown's unique musical vision was undisputedly the driving force behind the music he created with his bands.

Personal life outside of music
At the end of his life, James Brown lived in a riverfront home in Beech Island, South Carolina, directly across the Savannah River from Augusta, Georgia. Brown was once diagnosed with prostate cancer, which was successfully treated with surgery. Regardless of his health, Brown maintained his reputation as the "hardest working man in show business" by keeping up with his grueling performance schedule. However, James Brown led as colorful a life on stage with his performances, as he had off stage with his troubles with the law and his last marriage in particular.


Brown and wife Tomi Rae Hynie at the 2005 Grammy AwardsBrown was married four times — Velma Warren (1953–1969, divorced), Deidre "Deedee" Jenkins (1970–1981, divorced), Adrianne (Adrienne) Rodriguez (1984–1994, wife's death) and Tomi Rae Hynie (2001–2006, his death). James Brown's children included five sons — Teddy Brown, Terry Brown, Larry Brown, Daryl Brown and James Joseph Brown II, in addition to three daughters — Dr. Yamma Noyola Brown Lumar, Deanna Brown Thomas and Venisha Brown. Brown's eldest son, Teddy, died in a car crash in 1973.[17][4] Brown also had eight grandchildren and four great-grandchildren.[4]

However, much controversy surrounds Hynie's 2001 "marriage" to James Brown, which was officiated by Rev. Larry Fryer.[18] Brown's longtime attorney, Albert "Buddy" Dallas, reported that the marriage between Brown and Hynie was not valid because Hynie was married at that time to Javed Ahmed, a Pakastani whom Hynie claimed married her for a "green card" in an immigration fraud. Although Hynie stated that her marriage to Javed Ahmed was later annulled, the annulment for Hynie's 1997 marriage to Ahmed did not occur until April 2004.[19][18] In an interview on CNN with Larry King, Hynie produced a 2001 marriage certificate as proof of her marriage to James Brown, but she did not provide King with court records pointing to an annulment of her marriage to him or to Ahmed.[20] According to Dallas, Brown was angry that Hynie had concealed the marriage from him. Dallas added that, although Hynie's marriage to Javed Ahmed was annulled after she married James Brown, the Brown-Hynie marriage was not valid under South Carolina law because Brown and Hynie did not remarry after the annulment.[20][21] Sometime in 2003 during Brown's volatile relationship with Hynie, he took out an advertisement in Variety Magazine featuring Hynie, James II and himself on vacation at Disney World to announce that he and Hynie were going their separate ways.[22]

In a separate CNN interview, Debra Opri, another Brown family attorney, revealed to Larry King that Brown wanted an DNA test performed after his death to confirm the paternity of James II — not for Brown's sake, but for the sake of the other family members.[23]

Brushes with the police
Brown's personal life was marred by several brushes with the law. At the age of 16, was arrested for theft and served 3 years in prison. In 1988, Brown was arrested following a high-speed car chase on Interstate 20 Georgia-South Carolina state border. He was convicted of carrying an unlicensed pistol and assaulting a police officer, along with various drug-related and driving offenses. Although he was sentenced to six years in prison, he was eventually released in 1991 after serving only three years of his sentence. On July 3, 2000, the police was summoned to Brown's residence after he was accused of charging an electric company repairman with a steak knife during the repairman's visit to Brown's house to investigate a complaint of having no lights at the residence.[24]

During the 1990s and 2000s, Brown was repeatedly arrested for drug possession and domestic abuse. Adrienne Rodriguez, his third wife, had him arrested four times between the mid-1980s and mid-1990s on charges of assault. In January 2004, Brown was arrested in South Carolina on a domestic violence charge after Tomi Rae Hynie accused him of pushing her to the floor during an argument at their home, where she suffered scratches and bruises to her right arm and hip. Later that year in June 2004. Brown pleaded no contest to the domestic violence incident, but served no jail time. Instead, Brown was required to forfeit a $1,087 bond as punishment.[25]

On December 23, 2006, Brown, in ill health, showed up at his dentist's office in Atlanta, Georgia several hours later than his 1:30 p.m. appointment for dental implant work. During that visit, Dr. Terry Reynolds, Brown's longtime dentist, observed that Brown looked "very bad ... weak and dazed." Instead of performing the dental work, Dr. Reynolds advised Brown to see his doctor right away about about his medical condition.[5]

Brown checked in at the Emory Crawford Long Hospital in Atlanta on December 24, 2006 for a medical evaluation of his condition, and he was admitted to the hospital for observation and treatment.[26] According to Charles Bobbit, Brown's longtime personal manager and friend, Brown had been sick and suffering with a noisy cough since he returned from a November trip to Europe.[5] Bobbit also added that it was characteristic of Brown to never tell or complain to anyone that he was sick, and that Brown frequently performed during illness.[5] Although Brown had to cancel upcoming shows in Waterbury, Connecticut and Englewood, New Jersey, Brown was confident that he would be released from the hospital in time to perform New Year's Eve shows at the Count Basie Theatre in New Jersey and at the B.B. King Blues Club in New York, in addition to performing a song live on CNN for the Anderson Cooper New Year's Eve special.[26] Instead, his medical condition worsened throughout that day.

On December 25, 2006, Brown died at approximately 1:45 a.m. (06:45 UTC) from congestive heart failure resulting from complications of pneumonia, with his agent Frank Copsidas and his friend Charles Bobbit at his bedside.[27] According to Bobbit, Brown uttered "I'm going away tonight," and then Brown took three, long quiet breaths and closed his eyes.[27]

Honors, awards and dedications

A larger-than-life-sized bronze statue stands on the 800 block of Broad Street in Augusta, Georgia.In 1993, the City Council of Steamboat Springs, Colorado conducted a poll to choose a new name for the bridge that crosses the Yampa River on Shield Drive. The winning name with 7,717 votes was "James Brown Soul Center of the Universe Bridge". It was officially dedicated in May of that year. Later in the summer, James Brown performed on the bridge and held a concert at the Strings in the Mountains tent. In 2006, a petition was started by a local group of ranchers to return the name of the bridge to "Stockbridge" for historical reasons; however, due to the popularity of the James Brown name, they withdrew their petition. James Brown returned to Steamboat Springs, Colorado on July 4, 2002 for an outdoor music festival, performing with other bands such as the String Cheese Incident.

On November 11, 1993, Augusta mayor Charles DeVaney held a ceremony during which Augusta's 9th Street was renamed "James Brown Boulevard" in the entertainer's honor. On May 6, 2005, as a seventy-second birthday present for Brown, the City of Augusta unveiled a seven-foot bronze statue of the singer. The statue was to have been dedicated a year earlier, but the ceremony was put on hold because of a domestic abuse charge that Brown faced at the time. He later forfeited bond on the domestic abuse charge.

James Brown received several prestigious music industry awards and honors. He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame at its inaugural induction dinner in New York on January 23, 1986. On February 25, 1992, he was given a Lifetime Achievement Award at the 34th annual Grammy Awards. Exactly a year later, he received a Lifetime Achievement Award at the 4th annual Rhythm & Blues Foundation Pioneer Awards. On November 14, 2006, Brown was inducted to the UK Music Hall of Fame. He was one of several inductees who performed at the ceremony.

Brown was a recipient of Kennedy Center Honors in 2003.

In 2004, Rolling Stone Magazine ranked James Brown as #7 on its list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time.[28]

On August 22, 2006, the Augusta-Richmond County Coliseum Authority voted to rename the city's civic center the James Brown Arena.

On December 30, 2006, Dr. Shirley A.R. Lewis, president of Paine College, a historically black college in Augusta, GA, bestowed an honorary doctorate upon James Brown during the James Brown Arena memorial service. The honorary doctorate was bestowed upon Brown in honor of his many contributions to the school in times of its need. Brown was originally scheduled to receive the honorary doctorate from Paine College during its May 2007 commencement.[29]

Top ten singles
These singles reached the top ten on either the Billboard Hot 100 or the Billboard Top R&B Singles charts.

1956: "Please, Please, Please" (R&B #5)
1959: "Try Me" (R&B #1, U.S. #48)
1960: "Think" (R&B #7, U.S. #33)
1961: "Baby, You're Right" (R&B #2, U.S. #49)
1961: "Bewildered" (R&B #8, U.S. #40)
1961: "I Don't Mind" (R&B #4, U.S. #47)
1962: "Lost Someone" (R&B #2, U.S. #48)
1962: "Night Train" (R&B #5, U.S. #35)
1963: "Prisoner of Love" (R&B #6, U.S. #18)
1965: "Papa's Got a Brand New Bag" - Part I (R&B #1, U.S. #8)
1965: "I Got You (I Feel Good)" (R&B #1, U.S. #3)
1966: "Ain't That a Groove" Pts. 1 & 2 (R&B #6, U.S. #42)
1966: "Don't Be A Drop-Out" (R&B #4, U.S. #50)
1966: "It's a Man's Man's Man's World" (R&B #1, U.S. #8)
1966: "Sweet Little Baby Boy" - Part 1 (U.S. #8)
1967: "Cold Sweat" - Part 1 (R&B #1, U.S. #7)
1967: "Let Yourself Go" (R&B #5, U.S. #46)
1968: "I Can't Stand Myself (When You Touch Me)" (R&B #4, U.S. #28)
1968: "I Got The Feelin'" (R&B #1, U.S. #6)
1968: "Licking Stick - Licking Stick" - Part 1 (R&B #2, U.S. #14)
1968: "Say it Loud - I'm Black and I'm Proud" - Part 1 (R&B #1, U.S. #10)
1968: "There Was A Time" (R&B #3, U.S. #36)
1969: "Ain't It Funky Now" (R&B #3, U.S. #24)
1969: "Give It Up Or Turnit A Loose" (R&B #1, U.S. #15)
1969: "I Don't Want Nobody To Give Me Nothing (Open Up The Door, I'll Get It Myself)" (R&B #3, U.S. #20)
1969: "Let A Man Come In And Do The Popcorn" - Part One (R&B #2, U.S. #21)
1969: "Mother Popcorn (You Got To Have A Mother For Me)" Part 1(R&B #1, U.S. #11)
1970: "Get Up (I Feel Like Being Like A) Sex Machine" (Part 1)" (R&B #2, U.S. #15)
1970: "Santa Claus Is Definitely Here To Stay" (U.S. #7)
1970: "Super Bad" - Part 1 & Part 2 (R&B #1, U.S. #13)
1971: "Escape-ism" - Part 1 (R&B #6, U.S. #35)
1971: "Get Up, Get Into It, Get Involved" - Pt. 1 (R&B #4, U.S. #34)
1971: "Hot Pants (She Got To Use What She Got To Get What She Wants)" – Part 1 (R&B #1, U.S. #15)
1971: "I'm A Greedy Man" - Part I (R&B #7, U.S. #35)
1971: "Make It Funky" - Part 1 (R&B #1, U.S. #22)
1971: "Soul Power" - Pt. 1 (R&B #3, U.S. #29)
1972: "Get On The Good Foot" - Part 1 (R&B #1, U.S. #18)
1972: "King Heroin" (R&B #6, U.S. #40)
1972: "Talking Loud And Saying Nothing" - Part I (R&B #1, U.S. #27)
1973: "Down And Out In New York City" (R&B #13, U.S. #50)
1973: "I Got A Bag Of My Own" (R&B #3)
1973: "Sexy, Sexy, Sexy" (R&B #6, U.S. #50)
1974: "Funky President" (People It's Bad)" (R&B #4, U.S. #44)
1974: "My Thang" (R&B #1, U.S. #29)
1974: "Papa Don't Take No Mess" - Part I (R&B #1, U.S. #31)
1974: "Stoned To The Bone" - Part 1 (R&B #4, U.S. #58)
1974: "The Payback" - Part I (R&B #1, U.S. #26)
1976: "Get Up Offa That Thing" (R&B #4, U.S. #45)
1985: "Living in America" (R&B #10, U.S. #4)
1987: "How Do You Stop" (R&B #10)
1988: "I'm Real" (R&B #2)
1988: "Static, Pts. 1 & 2" (with Full Force) (R&B #5)

Best albums
Until the early 1970s, Brown was famous mostly for his roadshow and singles rather than albums (his live LPs being a major exception). Many of his early albums include tracks that were recorded in the studio and later overdubbed with the sounds of a live audience in an attempt to recreate the explosive excitement of the original Live at the Apollo. Four James Brown albums, all but one of them compilations, appear on Rolling Stone's 2003 list of the 500 greatest albums of all time:

Live at the Apollo (1963)
In the Jungle Groove (1986)
Star Time (1991)
20 All-Time Greatest Hits! (1991)
The following albums, originally released as double LP records, feature extensive playing by the legendary JB's. They have been a prolific source of samples for later musical artists:

The Payback (1973)
Get on the Good Foot (1972)
Hell (1974)
The Live at the Apollo, Vol. II double LP album, released in 1968, was notably influential on then-contemporary musicians. It remains an example of Brown's highly energetic live performances and audience interaction, as well as documenting the metamorphosis of his music from R&B and soul styles into hard funk.

Chronological collections
In addition to the career-spanning Star Time, Polydor released a series of CD collections devoted to specific periods in Brown's long career, similar to Columbia Records' Miles Davis boxed sets.

Roots of a Revolution (2 CD; covers 1956-1964)
Foundations of Funk: A Brand New Bag, 1964-1969 (2 CD)
Funk Power 1970: A Brand New Thang (1 CD)
Make It Funky - The Big Payback: 1971-1975 (2 CD)
Dead on the Heavy Funk, 1975-1983(2 CD)
Two other collections anthologize Brown's instrumental recordings with his 60s band and the JBs:

Soul Pride: The Instrumentals (1960-69) (2 CD)
Funky Good Time: The Anthology (2 CD; covers 1970-1976)

Brown held the record as the artist who charted the most singles on the Billboard Hot 100 without ever hitting number one on that chart.[30]
Brown's 1976 single "Hot" (I Need To Be Loved, Loved, Loved, Loved)" (R&B #31) borrowed the main riff from David Bowie's "Fame", not the other way around as is often believed. The riff was provided to "Fame" co-writers John Lennon and Bowie by guitarist Carlos Alomar.[31]
Brown had his natural eyebrows replaced with tattooed ones in 1991.[32]
Brown appeared at the World Championship Wrestling pay-per-view event SuperBrawl X in 2000, dancing alongside wrestler Ernest "The Cat" Miller, whose character was based on Brown.[33]
Brown was featured in Tony Scott's 2001 short film, Beat the Devil, alongside Clive Owen, Gary Oldman, Danny Trejo and Marilyn Manson.[34]
Brown made a cameo appearance in the 2002 Jackie Chan film The Tuxedo, in which Chan was required to finish Brown's act after Brown is indisposed.[35]

Pop culture references
Brown's inspiration was habitually credited in the liner notes of hip hop albums during the late 1980s. His name is also mentioned in several hit rock and R&B songs, including Arthur Conley's 1967 "Sweet Soul Music," Tom Tom Club's 1982 "Genius of Love," and Prince's 1991 "Gett Off."
One of Eddie Murphy's well-known characters during his tenure on Saturday Night Live was his caricature of Brown during the James Brown Hot Tub Party sketch. In this sketch, Murphy as Brown danced while wearing a towel in typical James Brown fashion in front of a backing band, singing about his attempt to get into a scalding hot tub of water. Murphy also referenced Brown in his standup comedy film Delirious, mocking Brown's energy and style of conversing with the band during a song. However, Brown got revenge; his song "Living in America" includes the line "Eddie Murphy, eat your heart out!", ostensibly in retaliation to Murphy's jokes.
In the 1993 movie Mrs. Doubtfire, Daniel Hillard, played by Robin Williams, joked around in a movie studio with toy dinosaurs, not realizing that he was being watched by the studio executive, who is impressed with his humor and ingenuity. During one scene, Hillard joked with a brontosaurus character by saying "Let's welcome Mr. James Browntasaurus," and continued on to sing a parody of I Got You (I Feel Good), called "I Eat Wood." Because of this scene, Hillard was offered a position, and the studio executive set up a meeting with him to discuss the parody.
James Brown Jr. was featured as a recurring character on Mad TV, played by Aries Spears. The portrayal was an exaggerated parody of Brown's energetic performing style.
"Weird Al" Yankovic parodied Brown's "Living in America" with his song, "Living With a Hernia". The accompanying video featured Yankovic with dark skin and an identical costume to that which Brown wore in his Rocky IV appearance.
The Simpsons DABF17 episode, 13th season finale, features an obviously James Brown-inspired title: "Papa's Got a Brand New Badge."

^ James Brown, the "Godfather of Soul," dies at 73. (2006, December 25). CNN Entertainment News. Retrieved January 5, 2007.
^ Brown's legendary status went beyond his music. The Kansas City Star. Retrieved January 9, 2007.
^ a b Singer James Brown prostate cancer surgery successful. Medical News Today. Retrieved January 10, 2007.
^ a b c Obituary of James Brown. (2006, December 29). Carpentersville Baptist Church, North Augusta, SC. (Adobe Acrobat Reader required for viewing)
^ a b c d e Smith, W. (2006, December 26). James Brown, the undeniable Godfather of Soul" dead at 73. The New York Beacon. Retrieved January 10, 2007.
^ James Brown: More than the godfather of soul. The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved January 10, 2007.
^ Brown, J. & Eliot, M. (introduction). (2005). I Feel Good: A Memoir of a Life Soul. New York: New American Library. ISBN 045-121393-9.
^ Wiegand, D. (2006, December 26). James Brown: 1933-2006 - Godfather of soul changed music at frenetic pace. The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved January 10, 2007.
^ 1986 Inductees: James Brown, performer. (2005). The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum, Inc. Retrieved January 9, 2007.
^ 1986 Inductees: Little Richard, performer. (2005). The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum, Inc. Retrieved October 28, 2006.
^ James Brown: Biography. (2006). All Media Guide. Retrieved November 22, 2006.
^ George, N. (1988). The Death of Rhythm and Blues, 101. New York: Pantheon Books. ISBN 0452266971.
^ Most sampled songs and Most sampled artists. Retrieved December 30, 2006
^ Liner notes - Kurtis Blow presents: The History of Rap, Vol. 1. Rhino Records. Retrieved January 9, 2007.
^ Funky drummers (Modern Drummer Online interview). A tribute to James Brown. Retrieved January 10, 2007.
^ Wesley Jr., F. (2002). Hit Me, Fred: Recollections of a Sideman, 97. Durham: Duke University Press.
^ Stritof, S. & Stritof, B. (2006). The marriages of James Brown. Marriage. Retrieved January 8, 2007.
^ a b Martin, J. (2007, January 4). Tomi Rae defends her relationship with James Brown. WRDW-TV (Augusta, GA). Retrieved January 9, 2007.
^ Gardner, L. (2006, December 26). Tomi Rae Hynie: "It's a blatant lie." WRDW-TV (Augusta, GA). Retrieved January 8, 2007.
^ a b Anderson, V. (2007, January 5). Probate hearing may determine whether Hynie is James Brown's widow. The Atlanta-Journal Constitution. Retrieved January 8, 2007.
^ Brown widow: I've been locked out. (2006). CNN Entertainment News. Retrieved January 8, 2007.
^ Public announcement of annulment in Variety Magazine. (2003, July 22). The Smoking Gun. Retrieved January 8, 2007.
^ Brown wanted paternity test. (2007, January 8). The Herald Sun (Australia). Retrieved January 8, 2007.
^ Aiken County Sheriff's Office Incident Report, Case No. 0000030719. (2000, July 3). The Smoking Gun. Retrieved January 8, 2007.
^ James Brown pleads to domestic violence. (2004). The Smoking Gun. Retrieved January 8, 2007.
^ a b James Brown hospitalized with pneumonia. (2006, December 24). CNN Entertainment News. Retrieved January 9, 2007.
^ a b Soul "godfather" James Brown dies. (2006, December 25). CNN Entertainment News. Retrieved January 9, 2007.
^ Rubin, R. (2004, April 15). The Immortals: The first fifty - 7) James Brown. Rolling Stone Magazine (issue 946). Retrieved January 10, 2007.
^ Remembering James Brown: Augusta memorial memorable. WKBF-TV (Augusta, GA). Retrieved January 10, 2007.
^ Whitburn, J. (2000). Top Pop Singles: 1955-1999, 900. Menomonee Falls, WI: Record Research. ISBN 0-89820-140-3.
^ The Whole Note: Under the Radar in '06. (2006). All Media Guide. Retrieved January 9, 2007.
^ James Brown: Biography. Retrieved January 9, 2007.
^ James Brown profile. Celebrity Wonder. Retrieved January 9, 2007.
^ Beat the Devil. (2002). Internet Movie Database Inc. (IMDB). Retrieved January 9, 2007.
^ Full cast and crew for The Tuxedo. (2002). Internet Movie Database Inc. (IMDB). Retrieved January 9, 2007.
Other References
Obituary: James Brown. (2006, December 25). BBC News. Retrieved January 9, 2007.
Pareles, J. & Sussman, M. (2006, December 26). Brown, the "Godfather of Soul," dies at 73. The New York Times (registration required). Retrieved January 9, 2007.
Sussman, M. (producer). (2006, December 25). Arts: Soul classics by James Brown (multimedia presentation). The New York Times. Retrieved January 9, 2007.
Slide show: James Brown through the years. (2006, December 25). The New York Times. Retrieved January 9, 2007.
Burnett, B. (2006, December 21). James Brown: Audience With the godfather (interview). The Hour. Retrieved January 9, 2007.
Lethem, J. (2006, June 12). Being James Brown. [Rolling Stone]].
Audio interview of Rolling Stone Magazine with Jonathan Lethem about James Brown and his music. Rolling Stone. Retrieved January 9, 2007.

All In My Grill by Missy Elliott