ERIN MILLS EAGLES GIRLS U16: Building Confidence

Tuesday, April 3
SOCCER PERFORMANCE
scrper
Good notes on soccer psychology, nutrition and physiology.

Sports Psychology: The Self-Confidence Rollercoaster
Sports Psychology: The Self-Confidence Rollercoaster (Tennis)

Kristine L. Krueger

Self-confidence is one of the most important characteristics a player can possess during a match, especially if the outcome of the match is uncertain. During a match, even the most successful professionals experience fluctuations in their level of self-confidence. Since these changes in self-confidence will occur, how can a player minimize their flow in the negative direction?

Self-confidence in sport is defined as an athlete’s expectation for success. This expectation often varies because it’s based on sources outside of the player’s control. For example, many players’ confidence goes up and down with the score of the match. As a coach, it is important to emphasize self-confidence sources that are within the control of the athlete. For example, a player can’t mandate how the opponent will play, so self-confidence shouldn’t be based on this variable.

The following are some strategies that coaches can use to help players gain more control over their level of self-confidence during the match:

Teach players that they are in control of their self-confidence. Players choose whether or not to act, think, and be confident. If confidence goes away during a match, it is not because the opponent took it away, it’s because the player gave it away when he stopped believing the match could be won. Help players discipline themselves so that they think in ways that give them the best opportunity to play well and win.
Help players create “realities” that make them feel more confident as the match progresses. For example, if the warm-up is going badly, a great player will believe that she is saving all the great shots for the match. Conversely, if the warm-up is going fantastic, the great player will believe this level of play will carry over into the match. If Pete Sampras is not serving well, he trusts that this skill will be great the next time he hits it regardless of whether or not he double-faulted the previous point. In other words, teach your players to strive to maintain the same confident attitude regardless of the results.
Challenge your players’ assumptions regarding an opponent or a match situation. For example, if your player loses the “pivotal” seventh game of the set, does he believe the set is lost? If your player is behind 0-6 in a tie-break, does he believe the set is lost? Make your players aware of assumptions they hold, and provide real-life examples of when the assumption is invalid.
Teach players to continually look for ways to win during the match. Help them develop their strategizing skills and then evaluate how your players use these skills during a match. Teach them to overcome obstacles that occur during a match, and encourage them to compete until the last point is played.
Develop playing styles and patterns that fit each player’s ability, strengths, and personality. Constantly working on weaknesses may keep a player in a match longer, but it will undermine overall self-confidence. A player’s strengths will win points during critical times, not just keep the rally going for a few more strokes. Players need to believe that their skills (mental, physical, and emotional) are better than their opponent’s skills in some way in order to believe they will win the match. The player’s style, patterns, and strengths are what gives the player the basis for this belief.
Help players remember why they play tennis. Revisit the joy and passion regularly so that players keep a perspective on the game and their relationship to it.
Help players to separate their personal identity from their results on the tennis court. If self-worth is linked to results, the pressure associated with each match becomes tremendous. Help your players recognize that tennis is something that they do, not who they are.
Teach players to think about where they’re going, not where they are now nor where they were in the past. For both winners and losers, the good (or bad) news is that every day brings a new opportunity to compete.
Emphasize who your players should believe in. Ask them, “Who do you believe in more? Yourself or someone else?” Help players commit to never losing another match because they didn’t believe in themselves.
Tell players to surround themselves with people who have great attitudes. Help them find peers who accept them as they are and who help them to be in their best mindset to play great tennis. Before and during play, help your athletes to learn to look for inspiration everywhere.
Encourage players to watch the professionals and notice how they handle adverse situations and losses in self-confidence. If you couldn’t see whether a professional’s shot was in or out, could you guess at the result by looking at the player’s reactions? Do professionals win every point or every match? Do they stop using their strengths after these skills “let them down” a few times? Help your players to recognize that missed shots and losses happen to athletes at all levels of competition. Help players realize that the response to these “negative” situations is what separates the successful from the unsuccessful.   
In conclusion, any source that gives an athlete confidence is good, although some sources may be better than others. Coaches need to teach players to base their confidence on sources within the player’s control, and to help players take ownership of their confidence. This approach will result in a more consistent level of play and the best attitude for success.

Kristine L. Krueger is a former intern with the USTA Sport Science Department.




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ESSENTIAL CONFIDENCE ISSUES FOR COACHES
Bruce Brownlee Coaching Notes.......


Giving players your confidence builds theirs. Being the first to consistently show confidence in and respect for a player creates an honest, strong, and durable relationship between coach and player. Sharing and showing confidence is the single most important factor in player motivation in women's soccer.

To be successful in confidence building, you must sincerely love and respect the players and show that you are clearly willing to invest in and work hard for their long term success. This means never criticizing over today's temporary limitations, always looking forward to the player's potential ability, holding to high expectations shared with the player, looking for signs of progress, encouraging and praising small successes, and treating the player today as if she had already achieved her greatness and as if she were already a most valuable player.

If you can sustain and encourage a developing player over an initial 6 to 12 month period with love, praise, and encouragement, you will be rewarded with a greatly improved player willing to work hard to succeed for many years to come. You will then find it easy to continue to support and encourage the player, and you will enjoy the respect, appreciation, and support from the player and the player's family.

Showing confidence when it counts is crucial. You will find that sincerely friendly laughter over mistakes cures much. Humor cuts through all the stress in even the most crucial matches. On game day, the coach who first starts criticizing players or who moans over mistakes during the match is far more likely to lose than the coach who is first to compliment and encourage good play or who laughs with his players over a mistake. Criticism is never beneficial, and is especially harmful (and never forgiven) in a group setting like the match. Players know when they've made a mistake. If they don't, it's your training oversight and you need to teach them more. Make a note, cover it later when everyone's receptive.

Once you've built confidence in players and your team, don't destroy it at half-time. Players look to your posture and facial expression as a reflection of their performance and match prospects. Limit your instructions to one main point and at most a couple of small ideas, say it all in 60 seconds or less. Players can only focus on a few ideas, and they interpret lengthy instructions as a sign of your sagging confidence in them. Their play in the second half will reflect the amount of confidence you share with them at half-time. To give confidence at half-time, gather the team and compliment several of the players for good things you saw in the first half. Laugh about the mistakes, including your coaching mistakes, promise to try to coach your best, and encourage all the players to play their best. The kids will know that you were paying attention, the individuals encouraged will feel great and continue to play with confidence, and the rest of the players will appreciate your fair treatment of their friends and will work harder to earn your recognition. When they play well, you will be pleased to give them the respect they seek in front of the team.

These are some of my personal observations, and perhaps they will work for you in women's soccer. I offer these ideas but will not argue them with anyone, and I won't pretend to know if these concepts work in boys soccer. After 10 years with different ideas and mixed results, I've enjoyed the last 8 happy years of fortunate results with these ideas. I treasure most the little successes in building players, and love and respect the players who have taught me so much about the game and about it's players.




TIPS FOR PARENTS TO IMPROVE CONFIDENCE IN SPORT
YSpsy
Click on the banner to visit the site and access the radio broadcasts for sports parents.
Handout: BUILDING ATHLETE CONFIDENCE

GRASS ROOTS
SOCCER PSYCHOLOGY
Many of the top coaches around the world have come to the conclusion that there are essentially three key elements required to be a top soccer and football player.

Athletic ability – Speed, movement, strength, power, fitness etc
Technical skills – Passing, dribbling, running with the ball, positional sense etc
Mental Qualities – Confidence, Commitment, Concentration and Composure........

Click on the banner to read more.......


BUILDING SELF-CONFIDENCE
V TECH
Self-confidence and Self-talk

The relationship between self-confidence and athletic success is well-documented. Confident athletes believe in themselves. They expect to perform competitively and successfully when they take the field or the court and, when doubts enter their minds, they are able to rid themselves of these doubts by controlling their self-talk. The importance of self-talk has become more evident in recent years. Everyone has a "little voice" in their heads that provides almost constant commentary--often in very critical terms--on what they do. Unfortunately, many individuals are unaware of what they are saying to themselves and, even if they are, fail to question these thoughts when they are unrealistic, harsh, and critical. This seems to be especially true for athletes who often set very high expectations for themselves.

There is a direct connection between how we think about things or how we talk to ourselves and our emotional reactions, as well as how we perform or behave. When we judge ourselves unfairly, evaluate our performances in excessively critical ways, or, in general, speak to ourselves in negative ways, there are predictable reactions. We are prone to frustration, discouragement, hopelessness, and depression. In addition to these emotional responses, inaccurate or inappropriate thinking often leads to poor or substandard performance. Conversely, athletes who think about themselves in realistic and positive terms learn to value themselves and their abilities in ways that enhance their performance.

Thoughts can be categorized into groups: those irrelevant to the task at hand; those focused on the self; and those focused on the task. Thoughts focused on the self cause problems for athletes. As thoughts are internally focused and consumed with preoccupation about their own welfare and feelings, anxiety tends to increase. For example worrying too much about what doesn't feel right, what might go wrong, or excessive focus on minor somatic or physical complaints--either imagined or real--lead to anticipation of negative outcomes and anticipation of failure. In general, when thoughts are self-focused, they reduce the ability to anticipate, interpret, and process relevant external cues and information. Athletes must learn to control their thought processes so they can generate a mix of task-relevant content and mood-appropriate content to stay motivated enough to maintain concentration. Task-relevant thought content involves the thoughts related to what's going on, what is about to happen, and how you plan to respond. Mood-relevant thought content serves to keep you aroused sufficiently so that the appropriate psychological state is maintained in such a manner that the quality of the effort is controlled (i.e. involved, focused, and concentrating appropriately to maintain a high level of performance).

Self-talk can be used in a number of ways including skill acquisition, changing bad habits, controlling focus and attention, changing mood or feelings, building confidence and self-efficacy, and controlling effort and performance. Regardless of the purpose, the steps for maximizing self-talk are similar:

Identify self-talk. Become more aware of what you say to yourself. Especially check in on your self-talk when you are feeling some negative emotion such as depression, frustration, or irritability.
Evaluate the content of your thoughts. Is the thought valid and realistic? What evidence is there that the thought is true? Is there evidence it is not true? Would you talk to your best friend or teammate the way you're talking to yourself? Even if the thought may have some validity, is it helpful or useful for you to focus your thoughts and energies on it?
Change the negative thought to something more realistic and positive. This may include identifying any patterns of irrational and distorted thinking that may occur with some regularity. Once the thought is identified, practice countering the thought with the evidence you gather and, when appropriate, reframe the thought by looking at your situation from a different perspective.
Practice these steps daily. It may take some time to change the way you look at your world but once you commit to doing this, you will experience a greater sense of control in your life both in and out of athletics. Being successful athletically is often a result of playing with confidence and building self-confidence is a function of both recalling successful experiences and of positive thinking. Remember, life isn't so much what happens to you as it is how you interpret what happens and what you make of your circumstances. The one thing you can consistently control is your thoughts. Conversely, if you fail to control your own mind, you will likely have difficulty controlling anything else.



5 STEPS FOR BUILDING SELF-CONFIDENCE
Building self confidence can be a daunting task, but it is possible. Start with the five steps outlined in the article here by Arina Nikitina. Then you may want to read up on related topics. You can find links to those after the article.

5 Steps for Building Self-Confidence
by Arina Nikitina

Copyright 2005 Arina Nikitina

Self-confidence is an all important trait you need to acquire in today's fast-paced world. For one thing, you must have confidence in yourself first to earn the confidence and respect of others.

The following strategies may be useful to overcome such self-conquering thought habits. Consider these steps as the building blocks for greater confidence in any aspect of your life.

1. Concentrate on your strengths rather than on your weaknesses.

Confidence comes from within. You have to concentrate on the positive things about yourself. Remember the past is over; you can only change the future. Write down ten positive things about yourself.

Concentrate on your potentials. These are the reasons you should love yourself and have high self-confidence in yourself. Give yourself credit for every positive thing you have written about yourself. Remember, you're somebody special.

2. Remind yourself of past successes.

Confidence builds on past success. Because you had success before, you can (and will) have it once more. We strengthen our confidence in any interest when we remind or review ourselves of past successes.

If you are trying to develop confidence in a new aspect, past success can still be useful in strengthening our confidence. For instance, if you had success in doing something new in the past, recall those experiences when trying something else new - even if it is in a completely different part of your life.

3. Take risks.

Try doing things that you've never tried before. It's always a little bit of a challenge in doing new things and just the act of accepting these challenges, some little and some big, whether we are successful or not, frequently improves our self-confidence.

Approach new experiences as opportunities to learn instead of occasions to win or lose. Doing so brings you new opportunities and can improve your sense of self-acceptance. Not doing so turns every possibility into an opportunity for failure, and inhibits self-growth.

4. Use self-talk.

Use self-talk as an opportunity to contradict destructive beliefs. Then, remind yourself to "stop" and replace more realistic assumptions. For example, if you catch yourself expecting perfection, tell yourself that you can't do everything perfectly, that it's only possible to try to do things and to try to do them well. This also allows you to accept yourself while still working to improve.

5. Visualize your future success.

Corporate executives, Olympic athletes, and successful people in all types of undertakings see future success. Confidence will increase when we visualize ourselves succeeding. Think about it. If you know you will succeed, your confidence will soar, right?

Seeing future success does that very thing for us. Our minds cannot distinguish the difference between something real and something vividly imagined. So vividly visualize your success. What will it look like, smell like, taste like, and feel like to have succeeded? Who will be with you, what will you be hearing and where will you be? How will you be feeling at that instant? Placing this much vivid detail into your mind increases the likelihood of success, and supports greater confidence!


Apply these steps in your daily life and your confidence will soar!

About the Author
Arina Nikitina is the author of "Boost Your Confidence" ebook. To build up courage, improve your relationships, and live the life you want with unshakable confidence visit: http://www.goal-setting-guide.com/confidence/



DEVELOPING A MENTAL SKILLS PROGRAM FOR TEAMS
How to Develop a Mental Skills Program - Ray Lauenstein, MS

There comes a point in a player or teams lifetime that the level of competition it competes at becomes a level playing field. The higher up the ladder one climbs: HS, Junior Nationals, College, Professional or simply through the state playoff system, the less variations in physical skill you see from team to team and player to player. Given that the talent levels are pretty much equal, what can be done to separate from the pack? What can be the “difference maker!”

Where can you find an advantage? Equipment? No, everyone has access to the same bats, balls, gloves and pitching machines. Coaching? Perhaps in a few cases, but most coaches at the higher levels are sound students of the game. Physical tools? To a degree yes, but the higher you go, the more alike players become in these areas. What does that leave you with? It goes by many names: “The mental game”, “Mental skills”, “ Mental Toughness.” Whatever you want to call it is fine, but the basics are the same. Teams and athletes with sound mental skills will routinely be at the top of the level they compete in? Why?

Reasons why mentally tough players and teams succeed:

1. They perform consistently well regardless of competition or pressure.
2. They rarely slump and when they do slump, they are able to adjust and snap out of it quickly.
3. They are focused on performance more than outcomes. The consistent performance leads to positive outcomes over time.
4. They practice with a purpose and understand how each small aspect of practice relates to the greater picture of individual and team goals.
5. They are not afraid to takes risks, step outside their comfort zones and learn from their failures. No one ever got much better without trying something new or out of the ordinary.
6. They have the skills to deal with short term or normal game/match failures by refocusing on the next task at hand quickly and clearing the past from their thoughts.

Operationally defining mental skills in action.
The concept of mental skills can seem theoretical and that often turns players and coaches off from giving it a fair shot. Take the time to think through the possible benefits and cause effect relationships mental toughness presents. Below are several scenarios where real life is brought into mental skills.

1. Leaving the bad behind and moving forward. How often do you see a player strike out and carry it out into the field with him where he promptly makes a mental error or a boots a routine play? You can see the body language in action: head down, kicking the dirt, no chatter or communication to other players, etc. In essence the player is playing the field while still carrying the bat with him. Or how about the pitcher who throws a bad pitch and on the next pitch tries to make up for it by throwing two strikes at once, only to fail from trying too hard.

Players and coaches need to understand the warning signs of a player loosing control and not “releasing” the prior performance. Body language is an indicator: tightened muscle action, physical sign of irritation such as a snap of the glove at the ball when taking the throw from the catcher, or jamming a golf club into the bag after a poor shot, change of pace from normal performance routine, shallow breathing, and so on. The key is to be able to notice these things and intervene before it is too late. Ways to intervene include taking a few deep breaths, incorporating self-talk, sprinting out to the field as a release of the pent-up energy, etc. Interventions are specific to each player and the written and physical confines of the given sport.

2. Slumping. Slumps are treated in sport as part plague and part voo doo. Athletes always talk about being in a slump; in fact there is an analysis to paralysis syndrome going on. Athletes talk so much about what they are doing wrong that it becomes reinforced even more. Add to it the comments or ideas from teammates, relatives, friends, coaches and media and you have a confused player, who presses to find a fix, and ultimately gets away from the basics that made them who they are in the first place. Simplify things when you slump!

On the other side of the coin is a red-hot player who will not talk about his current string of “luck” for fear of jinxing it! If you notice the attribution cycle in effect, there are internal attributions of failure (me) for slumping and external attributions (luck) for success . Why wouldn’t you talk about success and want to reinforce those things you do well. Is it really just luck and something you cannot hope to recreate until another magic “stroke of luck” passes again? Or is it a fluid union of well learned skills executed flawlessly in a competitive environment?

Mentally tough players are able to understand what they do when things go well and revert back to them during a short slump. Some keep logs about what their thoughts are and what they do for training, diet and sleep. Others study video. Players who do not slump for long periods of time keep a consistent approach to the game, believe in themselves and their approach and only make changes when they see a deviation from what is the norm.

3. Pressure/Perform- relax etc. Feeling pressure is a fact of life for all players. Pressure builds from many angles: Self pressure or a drive for perfection, parental pressure to not let them down, financial pressure if you are hoping to earn scholarship money for school, team pressure, pressure of being scouted, fear of failure, and many other complex psycho-social interactions which add to a players perception of pressure.

Athlete’s who perform under pressure usually enjoy the challenge of the situation. Fear of failure might be a motivator, but it usually leads to avoidance behaviors such as malingering (prolonged injury), reduced effort, or behavior that leads to punishment (benching).

Excelling under pressure requires several skills:

a. Focus on the task at hand only. When you are task focused, external variables, which often create the perception of stress, seem to vanish.
b. Physical Relaxation. Maintain steady breathing; conduct your normal pre-performance routine, and normal muscular tension for the task you are performing. NOTE: Fine motor control movements such as putting a golf ball, or shooting an arrow require a different amount of muscle tension versus putting the shot, a corner soccer kick or jumping for a rebound.
c. Confidence. Belief that you can actually do what it is you are being asked to do. Confidence goes a lot farther then people think. Being confident averts the need to overly think something through prior to performance (Remember, analysis = paraysis).
d. Been there done that! Nothing can replace experience, which is why a veteran team or players often (not always) plays better under pressure. Many athletes are able to create valuable experience via advanced imagery techniques.
e. Practice. Winning is pressure situations is made possible by practices which prepare for these moments. Intensity, situation simulation, scrimmages, repetition under pressure. They all play a part.

4. Practice- Mentally tough players understand that the practice field is where they are made. Nobody turns it on just for games, especially the higher up the ladder you climb. It simply can’t be done. Even the great ones can’t mail it in and expect not to get burned. Michael Jordan earned a reputation as a fierce, if not maniacal, practice player. His career speaks for itself. For an athlete each practice presents an opportunity to:
- Improve focus –on tasks at hand
- Set small goals – work on them and achieve success
- Simulate game situation challenges – virtually any situation can be rehearsed.
- Fine tune strengths and develop weaker parts of the game- you will not try a new dive or move for the first time during the league championships! You do it in practice first.

Coaches should understand that practice must mirror game pressure and situation as much as possible if they expect their players to perform. Do not expect your players to hit curves if they never see them in practice. A QB cannot run a 2-minute drill unless he practices it at full speed on Wednesday, and corner kicks are lost without plenty of repetitions in practice.

5. Confidence- Numerous studies published in peer reviewed Sport Psychology journals indicate a strong relationship between an athlete’s self-confidence and his/her ability to perform. Basically, a confident player will outperform one or of equal or more ability, who is not confident. Confidence has many faces…
Confidence that you know you can do the task at hand –I can set this ball precisely where my hitter needs it! -
Confidence that you can do the work or put in the time to prepare for the task at hand!
Confidence that you are fully prepared and ready for the task(s) at hand – healthy, fit, rehearsed!
Confidence in your teammates abilities to do their part of the overall task- trust was built during practice and preseason; successful and perfect practice.
Confidence that you can overcome failures and bounce back – the first setback does not railroad you, it offers a lesson to improve upon and get better next time(s.)

Building Confidence
Some people seem to be born with an endless supply of confidence and borderline cockiness. Yet all people harbor thoughts of self-doubt from time to time. How is confidence built? In many ways! Confidence is built by…
a. Positive and affirmative self-thoughts and internal talk.
b. Achieving in practice what is expected and encountered in competition. (See point 4)
c. Knowing that you are physically, mentally, emotionally and strategically prepared for competition.
d. Setting, striving for and reaching goals
e. Learning from failures –don’t dwell, objectively look at what you did and admit weaknesses (call them development areas, it implies you can work to develop them)
f. Willingness to risk failure even if it means doing what is not comfortable or usual.
Self confidence is seen in how people walk, talk and carry themselves in general. All athletes should carry their head high, stand tall and be assertive. Strong physiology and body language will reinforce the feeling of confidence.

Basic tools of mental toughness training.
1. Self and team knowledge. Assess the strengths and weaknesses of the team and individuals. Imagine knowing you have strong legs and a weak upper body. Also imagine that the upper body weakness was causing your performance to suffer. Would if make sense to just focus on legs because they are easy to work and you feel good about the strength you have there? No, of course not! You will work on the upper body! The same is true mentally. If your team blows leads late in the game all the time, you have a problem. A good coach will address the issue: conditioning, late game defense, holding onto a lead against a pressing defense, missed free throws, etc.– and force you to work it out in practice.

If you don’t analyze where you lost the edge, how do you know where to find it?
Many coaches ask how to develop mentally stronger teams and players. The key is creating a long term program that is reinforced each practice and game. In addition the program needs to be split up into a team and individual aspect. Take the following steps when incorporating a mental skills program.

2. Educate yourself first. There are two excellent resources on the market today for preparing mentally, both sport specific and general. Baseball players should read ‘Heads up Baseball: Playing One Pitch at a Time” by Ken Ravizza and Tom Hanson and also “The Mental Game of Baseball” by Harvey Dorfman and Karl Kuehl. These two books will give you ample materials to work with.

I recommend the Mental Training for Peak Performance by Steve Ungerleider for general concepts as well as sports like cycling, running, skiing and swimming. Take your pick for golf, there are dozens, and many for tennis. Go to www.humankinetics.com, the leading publisher of sport related resources and there are over a dozen books on Sports Psychology.
You don’t need to be a psychologist or hold a Ph.D. to understand the principles of mental toughness training. What makes these books so helpful is that they give the average person a very easy to use format for incorporating mental skills into a regular practice or training session.

3. Evaluate your team and individual players for strengths and weaknesses. To target your application of mental skills you must know what you do well and what you don’t, both as a team and as individuals. For example, does your team: Lose leads late in the game, have trouble coming back, and play better on the road or at home? Understanding the things you do well will help you attack the things you don’t.
With this knowledge you can make weaknesses a focused goal to work on in practices. Setting up scrimmage scenarios is a great way to help your team achieve success in areas of weaknesses.

4. Educate the players and parents on the efficacy and goals of the program. Explain how it works, why you want to do it, what you expect, how the parents can support the efforts. Encourage parents to read the books you have read so that they become invested.

5. Meet with each player on an individual basis. Pinpoint strong and weak points. Devise a plan to attack those. It always helps to ask a player what he things his strong areas are and what areas need development. As a coach you might approach this as part of your “player development” program - every college and pro team has one - and the area you see needing work will seem like a positive thing for the player as he is now “Developing” himself rather than having a weakness pointed out.

6. Start simple. Set goals for each practice which are targeted at solving a bigger issue and also works toward building team confidence.

7. Repetition. Just like hitting and fielding, mental skills require constant work so that they become second nature when game pressure is on. For example, reinforce goal setting by asking players to have a small goal for each swing in the cage. One day it might be “quick hands”, another it is “keep your weight back longer”, and finally “throw the hands.” These can be tailored to each player as needed and tailored to your coaching philosophy.

8. Evaluate often. Check in with players about how they are feeling. Do they see improvement with any of the weak points you discussed? Are the strong points still strong? Are they finding the program useful? Do they have suggestions or questions? Work with the players. Make feedback voluntary and anonymous in necessary.

Summary
The key to a mental skills program is to go slow and gradual. Don’t feed the players too much at once. If players don’t want to buy into it, don’t force them. Allow them to come around on their own. When given an honest try, mental skills programs work and make better players.


LINK TO A HOST OF MOTIVATIONAL ARTICLES AT DECATUR
DECATUR

COACH AND PLAYER

SPORT COMPETITION ANXIETY TEST
worried
An on-line test plus a download handout version to assess an athletes level of anxiety.

By analysing an athlete's responses to a series of statements about how she/he feels in a competitive situation it is possible to determine their level of anxiety. A test that provides such functionality is the Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT) which was developed by Martens, Vealey, and Burton in 1990.


Handout: SPORT COMPETITION ANXIETY TEST

Sport Psychology with Karlene Sugarman, M.A.
karlene
Click on my photo for site access.

Welcome to Sport Psychology! These pages will help explain what Sport Psychology is, tell how to get started in the field, and offer some practical skills to help athletes, professionals, parents and coaches. Performance-enhancement skills are not just applicable to athletics. I have taken these skills into the corporate world with great success, teaching things such as team building, leadership, communication, and motivation skills.

This Sport Psychology web site consists of excerpts from my book, Winning the Mental Way. They include:

Why Mental Training?
Peak Performance
Imagery
Cohesion
Careers in Sport Psychology
Leadership Characteristics


Dealing with Performance Anxiety
How to psyche yourself up, calm yourself down and overcome performance anxiety.

Click on the title and read more.


SPORTS CONFIDENCE QUESTIONNAIRE FOR PLAYERS
sport conf
Take the new leading edge SPQ20 sport psychology questionnaire to understand your mental approach and the mental skills you need to develop in order to...

-identify and reduce mental factors that impede your performance - for example, lapses in concentration, pre-performance anxiety and ‘choking’ under pressure

-improve your motivation, self-confidence and mental attitude

-increase your chances of playing in the zone, getting in the winner's circle and enjoying your sport


A small fee is involved for a complete and detailed report from the source.